The Sleep-aiding mechanism of Ganoderma
- Categories:Media Center
- Time of issue:2023-06-21 15:48
The Sleep-aiding mechanism of Ganoderma
- Categories:Media Center
- Time of issue:2023-06-21 15:48
Sleep-promoting effect of "Ganoderma lucidum + Ganoderma sinense" compound preparation
Practical experience tells us that taking Ganoderma to improve sleep requires a little more patience, more confidence, and sometimes a little more dosage (for details, see "Could poor sleep cause weak immunity and dementia?"); and animal experiments inform us which Ganoderma preparations may be effective and why.
In 2011, the National Edible Fungi Technology Research and Development Sub-Center and Fujian Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention jointly published a research report in "Strait Pharmacy", which is to use the commonly used animal model for scientific research on sleep (Pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep experiment in mice) to evaluate the effect of Ganoderma preparation on improving sleep function.
The research used the compound preparation made of "Ganoderma lucidum extract + cell-wall broken Ganoderma lucidum spore powder + superfine Ganoderma sinense powder" according to a specific ratio. Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma sinense are legal traditional Chinese medicinal materials of Ganoderma included in China Pharmacopoeia. Although they have been individually proven effective in early clinical applications, the combined effect of the two was not discussed until this study.
According to the test method for improving sleep function in the then Technical Specifications for Inspection and Evaluation of Health Food (2003 version), the research team set low, medium and high dose (160, 330 and 1000 mg/kg) of "Ganoderma lucidumi + Ganoderma sinense" compound preparation at 5, 10 and 30 times of the recommended dose (2.0 g per 60 kg body weight per day), and then fed the mice with Pentobarbital sodium (sedative hypnotic) to induce sleep.
The results showed that compared with the control group who did not eat Ganoderma lucidum, the time required to fall asleep (sleep latency) in the medium and high dose compound Ganoderma preparation groups was significantly shorter, and the sleep time was also greatly prolonged (as shown in the figure below). According to the judgment standard of "Technical Specifications for Inspection and Evaluation of Health Food" (2003 edition), it is judged that the compound Ganoderma preparation has the effect of helping to improve sleep.
Ganoderma strengthens body resistance, making it possible to sleep well.
Why does Ganoderma help to improve sleep? In 1981, Professor Cong Zheng and Professor Lin Zhibin from the Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, jointly published the "Research on Ganoderma and Discussion on the Therapeutic Principles of Strengthening Healthy Qi of Traditional Chinese Medicine" in the "Journal of Beijing Medical University", pointing out that the nervous system of insomnia patients is particularly sensitive (unstable) and can be strongly affected by slight stimulation or interference, the fact that Ganoderma improves sleep and related mental symptoms of patients indicates that the role of Ganoderma is related to the function of protecting (stabilizing) the nervous system, which shows the treatment principle of traditional Chinese medicine in strengthening healthy qi.
This therapeutic principle derived from clinical efficacy has also been proved in their animal experiments. Experiments have shown that Ganoderma can reduce the spontaneous activity of animals, enhance the sedative and hypnotic effects of barbiturates, weaken the response to painful stimuli, and make experimental animals tolerate electric shock without convulsions when applied in large doses. These results all indicate:
Ganoderma can reduce the response of the central nervous system to external stimuli, thereby promoting sleep, ensuring sufficient rest of brain cells, and enabling assimilation (synthesis) in metabolism (i.e. the process of recombining digested nutrients for the body to use and store) to proceed normally.
In addition, when the nervous system is subjected to adverse stimuli (pathological stress), Ganoderma can also play a protective role, avoiding dysfunction of the central nervous system due to excessive excitation, thereby ensuring accurate and effective regulation of autonomic nerves and visceral functions by the central nervous system, and improving the body's ability to maintain homeostasis. When the body's ability to maintain homeostasis improves, the quality of sleep and overall health level naturally improve.
Summary of "Research on Ganoderma and Discussion on the Therapeutic Principles of Strengthening Healthy Qi of Traditional Chinese Medicine"
Ganoderma synchronously improves the quality of sleep through the dual regulation of nerves and immunity.
Following the research of Professor Lin Zhibin, Professor Zhang Yonghe from the Department of Pharmacology of Peking University, who specializes in neuropsychiatric drugs for sleep, further analyzed how Ganoderma improves sleep through changes in brain waves, blood and brain-related indicators of experimental animals, and published his research results in Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior in 2007 and Journal of Ethnopharmacology in 2012.
This series of studies proves that whether experimental rats are in drug-induced sleep or rhythmic spontaneous sleep, Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract (GLE) can shorten their sleep time and prolong their sleep length (the main elongated segment belongs to the non-REM period of light sleep), and increases sleep depth (increased delta wave intensity during non-REM).
Compared with the rapid eye movement (REM) period in which the muscles have been relaxed but the brain is still highly active, the brain in the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) period will gradually relax to an unconscious state, and the heartbeat, body temperature, and breathing will gradually slow down. When a low-frequency delta wave appears in the brain wave, it means that sleep has entered the "deep sleep period" (also known as slow-wave sleep, the third stage of NREM) from the "falling asleep period" and "light sleep period" (the first and second stages of NREM), and the intensity of delta waves is positively correlated with the depth (maturity) and quality of sleep.
The deep sleep period is the main stage for the body to restore energy, restore physiological functions, remove metabolic wastes (such as amyloid), consolidate brain memory and regulate emotions, and the main stage for the immune system to eliminate mutant cells and pathogens.
In addition, the light sleep period is also very important to play a transitional role, because on the one hand, it helps the body enter the deep sleep period (therefore, the light sleep period also has some functions of the deep sleep period, but it is not as obvious as the deep sleep period.), and on the other hand, it also helps the body slowly awake. Sufficient periods of light sleep can contribute to the quality of deep sleep and to wake up refreshed (rather than dizzy), and give a good sleep experience.
Therefore, the aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body (GLE) can not only increase the total length of sleep by prolonging the light sleep period but also increase the depth of sleep by increasing the intensity of delta waves. It is undoubtedly a concrete manifestation of simultaneously improving the "quality" and "quantity" of sleep. In contrast, although benzodiazepine (BZD) hypnotics (such as Diazepam) commonly used in clinical practice can prolong sleep, they have no effect on delta waves, indicating that the mechanism of action of Ganoderma lucidum and sedative hypnotics is different.
According to the research results of Professor Zhang Yonghe, although GLE can inhibits neural activity and promotes sleep through γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors just like sedative hypnotics, but the positions where the two bind to the receptor are not the same. In addition, GLE can also prolong the non-rapid eye movement period and increase the intensity of delta waves by increasing the concentration of TNF-α in the blood and brain, which is not the effect and mechanism of sedative hypnotics.
A research report proving that Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract can improve sleep through the central nervous receptor GABA-A
Summary of studies demonstrating that Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract can improve sleep through immunomodulatory effects
Sleep and immunity influence each other, and Ganoderma can regulate both in synchrony.
As an immune cytokine that inhibits virus replication and promotes apoptosis of cancer cells, TNF-α has been confirmed to be positively correlated to circadian rhythm (making biological clock consistent with day and night cycle), length of non-rapid eye movement period, and sleep depth (delta wave intensity).
GLE drives the sleep mechanism of the central nervous system through the concentration of immune cells higher than the concentration of cytokines in the daytime, and then cooperates with the shallow sleep period and deep sleep period of non-rapid eye movement to provide the immune system with a good environment for anti-infection, anti-tumor and antibody generation, support the formation of immune defense and Immunological memory, and then gradually wakes up the brain as the immune response cools down.
In other words, sleep is related to the functioning of the nervous system, immune system and endocrine system. As long as the three systems work well, a virtuous cycle of "sleep homeostasis" and "immune homeostasis" can be formed. Ganoderma lucidum, which can simultaneously regulate the nervous system and immune system, obviously helps to spread the virtuous circle.
There are no quick fixes to health. A good sleep every day is the cornerstone of health.
According to the research of Professor Zhang Yonghe, the experimental animals did not show the increase of TNF-α, the increase of total sleep time, the extension of non-rapid eye movement period, and the enhancement of delta wave in the first two days of oral administration of Ganoderma lucidum. Until the third day of continuous oral administration, the experimental animals have these specific reactions that are beneficial to sleep and immunity. It is consistent with the results of human practice that early clinical trials have observed that symptoms such as insomnia in patients with neurasthenia usually take about 2 weeks to start improving.
In addition, the dose of Ganoderma lucidum taken by the experimental animals is positively correlated with the effect, but if it exceeds a certain level, there will be no additive effect. It reminds us to moderately increase or decrease the dose according to the individual's physical condition and self-feeling to find our own dose-effect balance.
Compared to making the growing tumors smaller or disappearing, or alleviating the symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease that have occurred, sleep, which is the cornerstone of reducing the incidence of tumors and neurodegeneration, is actually so ordinary that people are not impressed.
All wealth accumulates from a single dollar while health begins with daily sleep. The key is not to have sleep or sleep well at any time, but to follow the natural physiological clock (circadian rhythm), sleep well and be energetic after sleep so that the body can be really good.
Falling asleep consciously every night and using Ganoderma lucidum to improve sleep quality is the cheapest and easiest way to maintain health. I believe that good immunity and brain health should be with us for a long time in the subtle influence of day after day.
1. Experimental study of compound Ganoderma preparation on improving sleep in mice. Strait Pharmacy, 2011, 23(5): 43-45.
2. Research on Ganoderma and Discussion on the Therapeutic Principles of Strengthening Healthy Qi of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Journal of Beijing Medical University, 1981, 13(1): 6-10.
3. Extract of Ganoderma lucidum potentiates pentobarbital-induced sleep via a GABAergic mechanism. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 2007, 86 (4): 693–698.
4. Extract of Ganoderma lucidum prolongs sleep time in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2012, 139(3): 796–800.
5. The sleep-immune crosstalk in health and disease. Physiological Reviews, 2019, 99: 1325–1380.
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★ The original text of this article was written in Chinese by Wu Tingyao and translated into English by Alfred Liu. If there is any discrepancy between the translation (English) and the original (Chinese), the original Chinese shall prevail. If readers have any questions, please contact the original author, Ms. Wu Tingyao.