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Chinese Materia Medica

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[Abstract]:
"ChineseMateriaMedica":GanodermaLucidumPinyinLínɡZhīAlias​​Sanxiu,Yin,Zhizhi,Ganodermalucidum,Ganodermalucidum,GanodermalucidumTheoriginofmedicinaldrugsiscontainedinthe"BeiJing".Accordingtothecolorofz

"Chinese Materia Medica": Ganoderma Lucidum

Pinyin Línɡ Zhī

Alias ​​Sanxiu, Yin, Zhizhi, Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum

The origin of medicinal drugs is contained in the "Bei Jing". According to the color of zhizhi, the zhizhi is divided into six kinds of "Chi zhi, Heizhi, Qingzhi, Baizhi, Huangzhi, Zizhi".

1. "Materia Medica Collection Notes" 曰: "This six zhizhi is a fairy grass, such as the vulgar, rare, many species, different colors, and contained in the "Chiba Sketch". This is the use of purple zhizhi, this is the dead tree It is born like a raft." 2. "The Catalogue" quotes the records of the relevant genus of the past generations and puts forward their own opinions. He said: "There are many kinds of medicinal herbs, and there are also those who have flowers. The medicinal plants are only named after Liuzhi, but their species are indispensable. "3. "The Catalogue" also cited "Bao Puzi" cloud: "

The source of the source of the medicinal material is a fruiting body of the polyporaceae fungus Ganoderma lucidum, Violet and the like.

Latin plant animal mineral name: Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss.ex Fr.) Karst.; Ganoderma sinense Zhao, Xu et Zhang [G.japonicum (Fr.) Lloyd]

Harvesting and storage: Before the fruit body begins to release the spores, the spores can be collected by bagging, and the outer edge of the cap no longer grows. The tube hole under the cap begins to spray the spores outward, indicating that it is mature and can be harvested from the stipe. Unscrew the whole fruiting body at the lower end, dry it or dry it at a low temperature (the temperature does not exceed 55 °C), and ventilate it to prevent mildew.

Original form 1. Ganoderma lucidum The fruit of the burden is annual, with a handle and a suppository. The cap is semi-circular or kidney-shaped, with a diameter of 10-20cm and a cover thickness of 1.5-2cm. The cover is brownish yellow or reddish brown. The cover is gradually yellowish, with concentric rings, slightly wrinkled or smooth, and has a lacquer-like shape. Glossy, slightly blunt edges. The fungus is milky white and has a light brown near the tube. The tube length is 1cm, 4-5 per 1mm. The nozzle is nearly round, initially white, and is light yellow or yellowish brown. The stipe is cylindrical, lateral or partial, even in the middle. It is 10-19cm long and 1.5-4cm thick, similar to the color of the cap. The hyphae of the sheath are rod-shaped and the tip is swollen. The hyphae system is three-body type, the hyphae are transparent, thin-walled; the skeleton hyphae are yellow-brown, thick-walled, almost solid; the entangled hyphae are colorless, thick-walled, and all branches. Spores ovate, double wall, apex flat, transparent outer wall, inner wall light brown, small thorn, size (9-11) μm × (6-7) μm, more fruit in the autumn mature, south and southwest can be extended to Mature in winter.

2. The difference between Zizhi and the former species is that the caps of Zizhi are mostly purple-black to nearly brown-black; the flesh is uniform brown, dark brown to chestnut brown; the spores are umbilical, the small spurs protruding from the inner wall are obvious, spores Larger, size (9.5-13.8) μm × (6.9-8.5) μm.

Habitat Division Ecological Environment: 1. Born on the rhizosphere or dead tree stumps of the genus Fagaceae and Pinaceae.

2. Born on the stump of broad-leaved or pine branch. Causes wood white decay. It is endemic to China.

Distribution of resources: 1. China is widely distributed, but it is mostly south of the Yangtze River.

2. Distributed in the hot and rainy zone south of the Yangtze River.

Pharmacological action Effects on the central nervous system The spontaneous activity of mice can be reduced by intraperitoneal injection of ethanol extracts from Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum fermented concentrate, mycelium alcohol extract and spore powder. The alcohol extract can significantly enhance the central inhibition of sodium pentobarbital (disappearance of righting reflex) and has an anticonvulsant effect. The Ganoderma lucidum fermented concentrate or mycelial alcohol extract can enhance the central inhibition of thiopental. The alcohol extract after degreasing of spore powder has certain antagonistic effect on nicotine-induced tonic convulsion in mice. The irrigation of hot water extract of Ganoderma lucidum can also significantly reduce the spontaneous activity of mice, the ED50 is 2.65g/kg, and can significantly enhance the sedative effect of pentapyridine. Both the mouse writhing method and the hot plate method showed that it can increase the pain threshold. Adenine isolated from Ganoderma lucidum can also reduce spontaneous activity in mice, increase pain threshold in mice, prolong the time of caffeine poisoning death and relax mouse skeletal muscle. The mice were given artificial and natural Zizhi decoction and the concentrated liquid had obvious analgesic effect on the blanching method and acetic acid writhing method. Intraperitoneal injection of Ganoderma sp. can also inhibit the spontaneous activity of mice, enhance the central inhibition of pentobarbital sodium, and significantly prolong the latency of pain response in rats with radiant heat stimulation, and have obvious analgesic effect. .

2. The effect on the cardiovascular system. Ganoderma lucidum has a strong heart effect on the heart of isolated iliac crest. Intra-abdominal injection of Ganoderma lucidum in rabbits can strengthen the heart contractility, and the heart rate does not change much. The gingival alcohol extract is injected intraperitoneally, which is caused by the vasopressin of the pituitary. The T wave of rabbit electrocardiogram has a strong antagonistic effect, indicating that it has a certain confrontation against acute myocardial ischemia. The blood pressure of the anesthetized cat was immediately decreased, but the maintenance time was short. Mice fed with G. lucidum or alcohol extract can improve the ability of hypoxia and hypoxia. Ganoderma lucidum fermentation broth or mycelial alcohol extract also has a strong heart effect on the isolated heart, and the latter has a stronger effect. Intraperitoneal injection of mycelial alcohol extract has a strong heart effect on rabbit hearts. Anesthetized rabbit intravenous injection of fermentation broth had a brief antihypertensive effect, no rapid tolerance. Intraperitoneal injection of fermentation broth or mycelial alcohol extract or irrigation of hot water extract of Ganoderma lucidum can improve the tolerance to hypoxia. In anesthetized dogs, the total alkaloids of the Ganoderma lucidum fermentation (the alkaloid extraction method of the fermentation broth) significantly increased the coronary blood flow, and the coronary vascular resistance and myocardial oxygen consumption decreased. Anesthetized cats injected with mycelium alcohol extract, coronary blood flow and cerebral blood flow increased. Ligation of the left anterior branch of the guinea pig coronary artery causes the S-T segment to rise, the T wave is inverted, and the alcohol extract can restore it. For isolated guinea pig hearts, both total alkaloids and mycelial alcohol extracts of Ganoderma lucidum can expand the coronary arteries against coronary vasoconstriction caused by vasopressin. Intraperitoneal injection of the above two preparations in mice can improve the ability to withstand hypoxia and hypoxia, but is ineffective. Intraperitoneal injection of Ganoderma lucidum fruit body or mycelial alcohol extract can significantly increase the ability of mouse myocardium to take up 86Rb. Ginger (Ganderma sp.) fermentation broth also has this effect, and also has a strong heart effect on the heart of isolated sputum and can improve the ability of mice to withstand normal pressure and hypoxia. Spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar rats were given 100-50 mg/kg of Ganoderma lucidum extract, and blood pressure decreased. The paraffin part of the fruit body had a strong antihypertensive effect. The effective part was separated by dialysis membrane. The quality is above 100,000, and the antihypertensive effect is continuous. Intravenous injection of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium can reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressure and sympathetic efferent function in anesthetized rabbits and rats. The extract does not reduce heart rate, and its antihypertensive effect is secondary to the sympathetic nerve center. Suppression. In addition, Ganoderma lucidum extract can counteract ventricular arrhythmia caused by barium chloride, has a stable protective effect on myocardial mitochondria in burned rats, can increase plasma and myocardial cAMP levels, reduce oxygen consumption and improve hypoxia tolerance in mice.

Japanese scholars have proved that the methanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum has antihypertensive effect on spontaneously hypertensive rats. The active constituents are lanostane derivatives, including Ganoderma lucidum S, Danzhi alcohol A and B, Ganoderma aldehyde A and the like. It also proved that methanol extract and its active ingredients have an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in vitro, and the most powerful ganoderic acid F has an IC50 of 4.7×10-9 mol/L, and the rest is strong to weak. In turn, the effects of Ganoderma lucidum acids H, K, B, C, Y, S, Ganoderma lucidum alcohols A and B, and Ganoderma aldehyde A were weak. In 1981, there was a component separated from the water extract of the fruit body of Ganoderma lucidum. Its relative molecular mass was ≥100,000, containing lactose, fructose and glucose, which had antihypertensive effect.

3. Anti-platelet aggregation and anti-thrombosis Zizhi injection has obvious inhibitory effect on ADP and collagen-induced human platelet aggregation in vitro. Healthy people take 0.2g of Zizhi daily for 1 week, and also inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Collagen inducers have a poor effect. Patients with myocardial infarction or cerebral infarction were treated with Ganoderma lucidum for 2 weeks. Both in vitro and in vivo tests inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation and inhibited thrombosis in vitro. The aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum inhibits thrombin-induced bovine platelet aggregation in vitro, and its active ingredient is adenosine. Rats fed G. lucidum extract can inhibit the formation of platelet thrombosis and fibrin thrombosis, and can improve the aging ability of red blood cells, but have no effect on prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin in white clay. .

4. Effects on the respiratory system The mouse tracheal phenol red excretion experiment proved that the gingival alcohol extract and the Ganoderma sp. broth were intraperitoneally injected. The mouse ammonia mist cough method proved that Ganoderma sp. broth was intraperitoneally injected with better antitussive effect. Ganoderma lucidum, Ganoderma lucidum mycelium alcohol extract and concentrated fermentation broth have antispasmodic effect on histamine-induced guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle contraction, guinea pig "wheeze" caused by histamine spray, intraperitoneal injection of Ganoderma lucidum fermentation broth or mycelium Alcohol extracts can only protect a small number of animals, but can significantly extend the "wheeze" latency. Ganoderma sp. fermentation broth can resist the guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle spasm caused by histamine, acetylcholine and barium chloride, and can also significantly inhibit the release of histamine from the egg-induced guinea pig lung caused by antigen. Ganoderma lucidum aqueous extract has mild relaxation effect on isolated guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle, and can still antagonize the contraction of histamine and slow response substance (SRS-A) on the trachea.

The chloroform extract of Ganoderma lucidum fermentation broth has a significant inhibitory effect on histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro. The oleic acid isolated from it has a dose of compound 48/80 and A-23187-induced mast cell histamine release and 45Ca uptake. Dependence inhibition. Ganoderma lucidum methanol extract inhibits the release of histamine from rat mast cells induced by concanavalin A (Con A) and compound 48/80 in vitro, and the ganoderic acid C and D isolated therefrom can also inhibit the release of histamine. , its quantification can be used as a quality control indicator for the crude preparation.

5. Effects on metabolism and endocrine function Intraperitoneal injection of G. chinensis polysaccharide BN3C (D6) can promote the synthesis of protein and nucleic acid in serum, liver and bone marrow, accelerate the division and proliferation of bone marrow cells, and increase the homogenate cells of mouse liver. The content of 450 increases the detoxification function of the liver. Ganoderma lucidum extract increases plasma cortisol levels in scalded animals.

Intraperitoneal injection of Ganoderma lucidum fruit extract water extract or Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide A or B 10 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg, all have the effect of lowering blood sugar, and also have significant hypoglycemic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Ganoderma lucidum spore powder extract can prevent hyperglycemia caused by intravenous glucose or adrenaline in normal mice, has preventive and therapeutic effects on alloxan-induced diabetic mice, and can improve glucose tolerance in diabetic mice. Hetero-glycan isolated from the fruit body of G. chinensis has hypoglycemic effect on male mice, but weaker than Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide; it has good anti-tumor effect on mouse transplanted sarcoma S180.

6. Liver protection The administration of G. lucidum in mice can alleviate liver pathological damage caused by carbon tetrachloride poisoning. The ethanol extract of mice fed with Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma lucidum has a lowering effect on the increase of transaminase induced by carbon tetrachloride, which can also significantly reduce the accumulation of triacylglycerol (triglyceride) in the liver and reduce the sulphur Acid-induced fatty liver, improve the function of sodium pentobarbital in the liver of mice, promote liver regeneration in partially excised liver mice, poisoning digoxigenin and indomethacin (indomethacin), the two preparations are obvious Protective effects. Oral or intraperitoneal injection of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder ether extract significantly increased tolerance to indomethacin (indomethacin) toxicity. Rats were given liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride by Ganoderma lucidum extract and glutathione. Serum transaminase and lipid peroxide were used as indicators to show obvious hepatoprotective effects. Histological examination was also effective. A drug works well.

7. Effect on experimental myotonia The mice were injected intraperitoneally with Ganoderma lucidum injection, which significantly reduced the aldolase effect on experimental myotonia caused by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Clinical use of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder injection for the treatment of dermatomyositis, polymyositis and progressive muscular dystrophy has a certain effect. Liu Gengtao and other simulated patients with serum phosphocreatine kinase (CPK) and aldolase increased, using guinea pig thigh muscle homogenate plus immune adjuvant to the paws of rats, once a week, 4 times in a row, 1 week after the last injection Examination, replication of immunomyositis, elevated serum CPK, decreased muscle CPK, muscle degeneration, inflammatory infiltration. At the same time of immunization, rats were injected with water extract of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder once a day for 30 days. As a result, serum CPK decreased, muscle CPK increased, and muscle damage was alleviated. In addition, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid induced experimental muscle rigidity in mice, serum CPK also increased, and the injection of water extract of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder can also reduce it. The Ganoderma lucidum fruit body also protects the rat leg muscle homogenate from lipid peroxidation caused by oxygen free radical damage, which reduces the production of malondialdehyde and inhibits the formation of superoxide anion. Subcutaneous injection of water extract of Ganoderma lucidum spore powder for 3 to 5 days can also significantly increase the activity of acid phosphatase and β-glucuronidase in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and antagonize the DNA synthesis of mouse spleen caused by prednisone. inhibition. It is suggested that it has certain anti-inflammatory immunopharmacological activity.

8. Antioxidant and Anti-aging Effects Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides GLA, GLB and GLC have inhibitory effects on superoxide anion (O) free radical production and erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, and have a scavenging effect on hydroxyl radicals (·OH). Oxide dismutase-like activity is an important factor in Ganoderma lucidum to delay aging. The effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide on DNA synthesis and cell division algebra of human embryonic lung diploid cells showed that BN3B and BN3C promote DNA synthesis and delay aging.

9. Anti-inflammatory effects Rats can be significantly inhibited by carrageenan-induced joint swelling by artificial and natural Zizhi decoction. The artificial Zizhi had an inhibitory effect on xylene-induced ear swelling in mice, and had a significant effect on the increase of capillary permeability of the skin caused by carrageenan, which significantly inhibited the formation and exudate of cotton granuloma. In the leukocyte migration, the body weight is significantly increased, but has no effect on the weight of the thymus, adrenal gland and spleen, and has no damage to the gastric mucosa of rats.

10. Anti-tumor effect The crude extract of G. lucidum has a inhibition rate of 87.6% on mouse S180, and its composition contains polysaccharide and protein. A variety of polysaccharides were isolated from the hot water extract of Ganoderma lucidum, which inhibited the transplanted tumor of S180 in mice. Oral is not effective. Artificially cultured proteoglycans isolated from the mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum also inhibited the growth of mouse S180, and the number of spleen plaque forming cells was significantly increased in mice immunized with sheep red blood cells. It is believed that the anti-tumor effect of the polysaccharide is mediated by the host, enhancing the host's immune function rather than through its direct cytotoxic effect. The mice were intraperitoneally injected with polysaccharides GL-1, GL-2 or GL-3 isolated from Ganoderma lucidum, 5-20 mg/kg daily for 10 days, and the inhibition rate against S180 was 42%-97%. Both glucan and heteropolysaccharides in Ganoderma lucidum have anti-stem effect on mouse S180.

11. Anti-radiation effects In mice, a lethal dose of 60Co can cause death from acute radiation sickness. For example, if the alcohol extract of G. lucidum fruit is administered for 20 days before irradiation, it can be significantly reduced after 2 weeks of irradiation. If the ganoderma is administered intraperitoneally after irradiation, it has no effect on the lethal effect of 60Co. The average survival time of the animals was prolonged. It indicates that Ganoderma lucidum has a certain protective effect on radiation damage. X-ray irradiation of male mice, intraperitoneal injection of Ganoderma lucidum extract can prevent radiation damage.

12. Immune regulation The intraperitoneal injection of proteoglycan isolated from Ganoderma lucidum increased the number of cells, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the peritoneal exudate of mice, indicating an immunopotentiating effect on the spleen of mice immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). The number of hemolytic plaque forming cells is significantly increased, and this polysaccharide contains galactose, glucose, and xylose. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is one of the important lymphokines and plays an important role in the immune regulatory network. It is mainly produced by T helper cells, so the level of IL-2 indirectly reflects the function of T cells. Studies have shown that hydrocortisone and cyclosporine A can significantly inhibit IL-2 production in mouse spleen cells in vitro. The hot water extract of Ganoderma lucidum can obviously inhibit the inhibition of the above two and promote the production of IL-2, and its effect is related to the concentration. The overall study also showed that Ganoderma lucidum can promote the production of IL-2 by spleen cells, and even under the condition of simultaneous application of immunosuppressive agents, the production of IL-2 is still significantly increased. The polysaccharide component of Ganoderma lucidum BN3C can significantly increase the ability of mouse peritoneal macrophages to phagocytose chicken red blood cells, which can slightly activate mouse spleen cells to enter low-level proliferation and IL-2 production, but far less than ConA; When Con A was used, cell proliferation was significantly increased, but IL-2 activity was decreased. The target cells of BN3C have T, B and helper cells, and BN3C can reduce the inhibitory effect of cyclophosphamide on the proliferation of mouse spleen cells. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides BN3A, BN3B and BN3C significantly increased the production of IL-2 in normal mouse spleen cells in vitro, and restored the ability of spleen cells to produce IL-2 in aged mice, partially against hydrocortisone or cyclosporine A. Inhibition of IL-2 production by mouse spleen cells. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide promotes IL-2 secretion and enhances T cell function. Immunosuppression of cyclosporine A, hydrocortisone, mitomycin C, fluorouracil and cytarabine in a mouse mixed lymphocyte culture model The effects have different degrees of confrontation, and when the suppression is light, they can be completely confronted and returned to normal.

 

Separation of an immunomodulator Ganoderma lucidum-8 (LZ-8) from Ganoderma lucidum mycelium can agglutinate sheep red blood cells, but it has no effect on human red blood cells. In the whole experiment, if the mice are repeatedly administered, the anti-allergic reaction can be prevented. Occurred, thought to be caused by a decrease in antibodies. A protein contained in the mycelium of Ganoderma lucidum has a 100% inhibitory effect on the type I allergy produced by CFW mice using bovine serum albumin as an antigen, and the protein is treated with the protein. Lymphocytes, type IV allergies were also reduced (from 100% to 20.4%).

Glycerol spore powder alcohol-soluble fraction (GLSE) is injected intraperitoneally, allergic reaction to mice caused by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, delayed allergic reaction to mouse ankle caused by SRBC, injection of allogeneic splenocytes The delayed allergic reaction caused by it has obvious inhibitory effects. In vitro, there is a significant inhibitory effect on Con A-induced spleen lymphocyte transformation in mice. These results indicate that GLSE inhibits cellular immune function in mice.

The alkali extract of Ganoderma lucidum mycelium activates complement C3 and activates the mouse reticuloendothelial system, increasing the carbon clearance rate and increasing the spleen hemolytic plaque forming cells. The active ingredients contain polysaccharides and proteins.

13. Other effects Ganoderma lucidum spore powder or Ganoderma lucidum extract can significantly reduce the drooling caused by pilocarpine, indicating peripheral anticholinergic effect. After 4 months of treatment of chronic bronchitis with Ganoderma lucidum, the cholinesterase activity of whole blood decreased in most patients, suggesting that it can reduce the excitability of parasympathetic nerves. Ganoderma lucidum or alcohol extract has obvious inhibitory effect on isolated ileum of rabbit small intestine or guinea pig, and inhibition of acetylcholine-excited small intestine is more significant. Ganoderma lucidum fermentation broth or mycelial alcohol extract significantly inhibited isolated rabbit ileal smooth muscle and had an antagonistic effect on ileal contraction caused by strontium chloride, acetylcholine and histamine. The fermentation broth of Ganoderma lucidum has a significant inhibitory effect on the uterine contraction induced by vasopressin in rats. The mice were intraperitoneally injected with 3.5 g/kg of hot water extract of Ganoderma lucidum for 1 week, which significantly prolonged the swimming time of the mice.

14. The toxicity of Ganoderma lucidum is less toxic. The LD50 of the intraperitoneal injection of Ganoderma lucidum sputum is 38.3±1.04g/kg, and the ginseng hot alcohol extract is injected intraperitoneally. The LD50 of the mouse is 6.75g/kg, and the MLD of the gavage is 165g/kg. The cold alcohol extract was less toxic, and the rats were orally administered with 1.2g/kg and 12g/kg daily for 30 days. There was no poisoning performance on growth, liver function and electrocardiogram. The dog was given daily cold alcohol extract 12g/kg for 15d, and then the hot alcohol extract was 24g/kg for 13d. The index was the same as that of the rats. The results were similar, and the pathological sections were not abnormal.

Injections prepared by artificially culturing Ganoderma lucidum by alcohol extraction showed various degrees of allergic reactions in guinea pig tests. It has been reported that patients with urticaria, itchy skin, palpitation, chest tightness, laryngeal edema, etc., severe cases of anaphylactic shock, life-threatening, so the clinical should be taken orally.

Identification 1. Take 2 g of this product powder, add 30 ml of ethanol, heat to reflux for 30 minutes, filter, and evaporate the filtrate, and add 2 ml of methanol to dissolve the residue as a test solution. Another 2 g of Ganoderma lucidum reference material was prepared, and the same method was used to prepare a reference drug solution. According to the thin layer chromatography (Pharmacopoeia Appendix VIB) test, draw 4μl of each of the above two solutions, respectively, on the same silica gel G thin-layer plate, with petroleum ether (60-90 ° C) - ethyl formate - formic acid (15: 5) The upper layer solution of :1) is a developing agent, unrolled, taken out, air-dried, and examined under an ultraviolet lamp (365 nm). In the chromatogram of the test sample, fluorescent spots of the same color are displayed at positions corresponding to the chromatogram of the reference drug.

2. Check that the total ash is not more than 3.2% (Pharmacopoeia Appendix IXK). Acid-insoluble ash should not exceed 0.5% (Pharmacopoeia Appendix IXK).

The original medicinal material is processed, the impurities are removed, and the sand is removed.

Decoction traits: See the "medical identification" item. Store in a dry container, sealed, and placed in a cool dry place.

Sexual sweet; flat; non-toxic

Return to the lungs; heart; spleen; kidney

Indications for the benefit of qi and blood; peace of mind; spleen and stomach. Mainly vain; palpitations; insomnia; dizziness; fatigue; chronic cough and asthma; coronary heart disease;

Oral administration: decoction, 10-15g; powder, 2-6g; or soaked in wine.

Pay attention to the evidence and caution. "Materia Medica Collection": "Evil Hengshan. Fear of flat green, Yinchenhao."

Compound "Chu Ci·Nine Songs": "Catch the Three Shows in the Mountain Gate." Its note cloud: "Sanxiu, Zhicao." Yan Kang Shiyun: "Huanghuang Ganoderma lucidum, three shows a year." With this "three show" name. Zhizhi, "The Outline" Cloud: "Shibamoto made it, and the sacred texts are like the shape of the grass. The descendants borrowed the words for the words, and added the grass to other things." "Erya": "Yin, Zhi." "Erya Yi Shu" cloud: "Yin characters do not see its book, Sun's star Yan Tseng questioned. Yu according to the "class gathering" ninety-eight cited "Erya" for the bacteria, the cover of the word destruction as the ear. With "Lie Zi·Tang Wen Pian" cloud: 'There are bacteria on the top of the soil, born in the dying of the dying 晦'... "Zhuangzi·Happy Journey" article "Interpretation" cited Sima Yi, Cui and the bacteria as the zhi However, the ancient book "Erya" is being used as a mushroom."

Discussions 1. "Do not record": "Chi Zhisheng Huoshan." "Zizhisheng Gaoxia Valley. Liuzhi is non-toxic. June and August." 2. "New Materia Medica": "Wuzhi," The scriptures are all born in Wuyue in five colors. All the guests have offered, Baizhi may not be Huashan, Heizhi is very Yue, and Zhiduo is yellow and white, rare black. However, Zizhi is the most, non-five. But Zhizhi is hard to come by. Long won one or two, won the long-term service yeah?" 3. "Outline": "Shen Nong Jing" cloud: mountains and rivers, rain, four o'clock, yin and yang, night and night, with the five-color Shenzhi, for the holy king Hugh. "Rui Yingtu" cloud: Zhicao is often born in June, spring green, summer purple, autumn white winter black. Ge Hong "spore Pu" cloud: Zhizhi Shizhi, Muzhi, Caozhi, Shiba, Shizhizhi, where Hundreds of species. Shizhi stone elephant, born in the sea of ​​Shijiashan island. The meat is like meat. It is attached to the big stone, and has the head and tail. It is also a creature. The red is like a coral, the white is like a fat, the black is like a Paint, young people such as Cui Yu, yellow like purple gold, all light holes are as strong as ice. The big ones are more than ten kilograms, the small ones are three or four pounds. Where to seek the grass, enter the famous mountain, must be in March, September Naishan opened the month of the magical medicine... Shizhen suspicion: Chino was born of decaying gas, just like the tumor of life, and the ancient and modern thoughts are the grass, and the cloud can be eaten by the celestial, sincerely. Words, the first knows what I want to say first, and the other is the same. The alchemist uses the wood to get wet, and the medicine Fu, that is, the five-color Zhi. Jiajing Zhong Wang Jin tastes the life to offer the Shizong. I don’t know."

Excerpt from "Chinese Materia Medica"

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